NEWS RELEASE       April 16, 1998       Contact: Jeff Green

Citizens For Safe Drinking Water     3243 Madrid Street     San Diego, CA 92110

Email:     (800) 728-3833

Research Links Low Levels of Fluoride and Aluminum to Alzheimer's and Kidney Damage

In a study just published in the peer-reviewed journal Brain Research the presence of low levels of fluoride in the drinking water of test animals, equal to the amount of elemental fluorine found in fluoridated water, caused damage to the tissue of the brain that the authors identified as similar to the pathological changes found in humans with Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia.

While the purpose of this study was to assess the factors that enhance or inhibit the bioavailability of aluminum and its effects on the nervous system, the study looked at the effects of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride separately.

The authors report, "Histological evidence of glomerular distortion and other signs of kidney disorder were found in animals in both the aluminum-fluoride and sodium fluoride groups..."

"While the small amount of aluminum-fluoride in the drinking water of rats required for neurotoxic effects is surprising, perhaps even more surprising are the neurological results of the sodium-fluoride at the dose given in the present study (2.1 ppm). {the amount used to achieve 1 ppm of elemental fluorine used in fluoridation}.

"Fluoride has diverse actions on a variety of cellular and physiological functions, including the inhibition of a variety of enzymes, a corrosive action in acid mediums, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and possibly cerebral impairment."

The authors summarize, "Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride and sodium-fluoride in the drinking water of rats resulted in distinct morphological alterations of the brain, including the effects on neurons and cerebrovasculature."

While there are numerous studies linking fluoride to increased risk of hip fracture, cancer, genetic damage, bone pathology, and dental fluorosis, as identified in July 1997 by the union which consists of all of the scientists and other professionals at the Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., this study adds further definition to a series of recent studies that have illuminated fluoride's adverse neurological impact and have anticipated the results from this research that focuses on the hippocampus region of the brain, and interaction with other neurotoxins.

A previous study by Mullenix, et al. in Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 1995, documents abnormal behavioral responses by animals exposed to fluoride at various stages of gestation, which resulted in the exposed animals exhibiting either permanent hyperactivity if exposed prenatally, or what layman refer to as "the rat version of couch potato" if exposed after birth.

In "Psychopharmacology of Fluoride: A Review", 1994, the author A. Spittle concludes, "There would appear to be some evidence that chronic exposure to fluoride may be associated with cerebral impairment affecting particularly the concentration and memory of some individuals. These symptoms are reminiscent of those seen in the chronic fatigue syndrome."

In the "Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland", 1994, the author, J. A. Luke suggests that fluoride also effects the gland in the brain that produces melatonin, which has been established as critical to those people suffering from sleep disorders.

The follow-up question should be obvious: In light of this scientific evidence, is it in the best interest of our nation to continue a public policy __ a public policy that has already been rejected by 98% of Europe __ that forces each man, woman, and child to ingest a known cumulative neurotoxin, which is added to our water supply with no control over total intake from all sources, or variances in susceptibility?

The 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act requires that each chemical that appears in our drinking water be re-assessed with a new criteria for assuring the safety of drinking water for the most susceptible segments of our population. The coming days will reveal whether the agencies that have been established to protect our health will act.



Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in the drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity, Julie A. Verner, Karl F. Jensen, William Horvath, Robert L. Isaacson, Brain Research, vol. 784, pp. 284-298, 1998.

Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats, Mullenix et al., Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 169-177, 1995

Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland, J. A Luke, Caries Research, Vol. 28, p204, 1994.

Psychopharmacology of Fluoride: A Review, A. Spittle, International Clinical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 9, 1994.


to the Main page